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      琴棋书画
       
      中国文人与琴
       发布时间:2016/3/14 浏览次数:565

      中国文人与琴

       

      琴在产生伊始,便被视为君子之配器,“琴德”被相比于君子之德,随着中国古代历史的发展,琴的内涵与美学价值被不断丰富与延伸,体现了古代文人的哲思。儒家和道家的思想作为中国传统文化的两大支柱,给予了琴极大的精神内涵并支撑其存在的深远意义,儒道思想之后与佛学思想的融合,使琴乐中深含儒、释、道义理,崇尚自然,因此,古琴成为文人的必修之器,而历代文人的行为操守与精神追求也在古琴艺术中得以印证。

       

      圣人之器  琴德最优

       

      《易经•系传下》云:“古者包羲氏之王天下也,仰则观象于天,俯则观法于地,观鸟兽之文与地之宜,近取诸身,远取诸物,于是始作八卦,以通神明之德,以类万物之情。造书契以代结绳之政,……作三十五弦之瑟。”《琴论》中:“伏羲氏削桐为琴,面圆法天,底方象地,龙池八寸通八风,凤池四寸合四气。琴长三尺六寸,象三百六十日。广六寸,象六合。前广后狭,象尊也。上圆下方,法天地也。五弦象五行,大弦为君,小弦为臣,文武加二弦,以合君臣之恩。圣人作乐,合乎法度,……”

      伏羲神农虽未必存在,但天人感应必有其本,可见乐在元初阶段已被赋予了神性。所谓神性,就是音乐中的天机和道性所在,正是汉人宗教感的表现。《礼记•表记》载:“殷人尊神,率民以事神,先鬼而后礼。”希腊的雕像,起初也是为了敬神,故而虔诚庄重,一切伟大文明的发端无不如此。民智初开之时,先人迫切希望与天地神明沟通,初民造物,取法于天地、自然,故琴器朴素持重,琴音简静深幽。

      《尚书》载:“舜弹五弦之琴,歌南国之诗而天下治。”琴之初始,便同治国联系在了一起,事实亦如此,在时代更迭的春秋时期,周礼虽崩,“乐”依旧是传统士人修身的至高境界。“儒家”先贤孔子注重音乐的教化功能,“诗三百篇,孔子弦而歌之”,孔子在齐闻《韶》,如醉如痴,以至“三月不知肉味”。即使困于陈、蔡之际,仍“弦歌鼓舞,未尝绝音。这使得琴在历代儒士心中结下了不解的“琴缘”,故古之君子左琴右书,朝弦暮诵,无故琴瑟不离于其侧。而“兴于诗,立于礼,成于乐。”更是说明了音乐成为“君子”达到人格完成的最高标志。琴音中和淳静,韵味深远,如谦谦君子之风度,如幽幽蕙兰之清雅,难怪东汉哲学家、经学家桓谭这般赞叹道:“八音广博,琴德最优,古者圣贤玩琴以养心。”

       

      越名教而任自然

       

      当仕途得意的儒士在思考如何“兼济天下”时,“独善其身”的隐士则在山水之间沉吟。作为他们唯一的知己,琴承载了隐者太多的情感寄托,而恰是此独特的音色,在辽旷的天地之间,更显苍厚,愈加摄人心魄。阮籍“忘世虑于形骸之外,托兴于酗酒,以乐终身之志。”而作《酒狂》;陶元亮颖脱不羁,任真自得,“性不解音,而畜素琴一张,弦徽不具。”其曰之“但识琴中趣,何劳弦上声?”。至少从魏晋时期,那个追求个性、自然的时代开始,琴便从礼的庙堂上走下来,成为传达个人性灵之器。魏晋、隋唐风度的文人挣脱了儒学名教的束缚,注意的不是神的意志而是人的命运,关心的不是社会的功业而是个人的养生,追求的不是外在的行为道德而是内在的才情风神,琴人“心性”的表达,使传统琴乐生发出无限生命力,与其它传统艺术门类一样,“气韵”、“意境”、“风神”等概念成为琴乐审美准则中不可或缺的一部分。

      除此之外,古琴音乐独特的音乐风格与禅学中“不立文字,直指人心”、“见性成佛”的法门暗合,追求弦外之音,这让大量的中国文人,借弹琴参禅悟道,视修琴为修心,因而在中国绘画中,经常可以看到:或深林中,或崖边,或溪边,或隐逸高士,或忘尘僧人,携琴访友、弹琴、长啸……如宋徽宗的《听琴图》、明代仇英的《松下眠琴》、杜董的《梅下横琴》中,琴者或三两小坐、或独对长空,松梅相伴,如此自由清净、物我两忘的境界令人神往。

      白居易早年强调礼乐治国,晚年主张以琴自适,自言与琴“穷通行止长相伴” 又尝言“性嗜酒、耽琴、淫诗,凡酒徒、琴侣、诗客多与之游。……人家有美酒、鸣琴者靡不过,有图书、歌舞者靡不观。……没良辰美景,或雪朝月夕,好事者相过,必为之先拂酒罍,次开诗箧。酒既酣,乃自援琴,操宫声,弄《秋思》一遍。……肩舁适野,舁中置一琴一枕,陶、谢诗数卷,舁杆左右悬双酒壶,寻水望山,率情便去。抱琴饮酌,兴尽而返。”  可见古代文人中偶像级的人物在其日常生活中,与琴、诗常伴在侧,导志乐心。

      李银河说过,生命的过程是孤独的,但由于人的群居性,这个矛盾贯穿人生命的始终。在中国文人的心中,伯牙幸遇知音,是精神世界中相知相惜的至高境界。文人、哲人的内心多是岑寂的,琴则是排遣孤独的绝好选择,与悠悠天地相通,与古人神交,抚琴的过程,是一个用乐律来表达哲思的生命体验!  (程澄 中国艺术研究院 2013年3月)

       


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